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0-day / Zero-day threat

Vulnerability that has no known patch until now, which means that no protection exists

AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)

Algorithme de chiffrement symétrique le plus communément utilisé.
L'abréviation AES-128 et AES-256 fait référence à la taille des clés, respectivement de 128 et 256 bits.


European standard of evaluation methodology for physical random number generators (TRNGs)

API (Application Programming Interface)

Set of definitions and protocols that facilitate the creation and integration of application software (function name, description, input, output, etc.)

ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit)

An integrated circuit (IC) chip customized for a particular use and user.

Asymmetric encryption or cryptography

Asymmetric cryptography is a process that incorporates two encryption keys, a public key and a private key. The encryption key of the message is called public key (and can be communicated without any restriction), and the decryption key of the message is called private key. Asymmetric cryptography can also be used to authenticate messages


Functionality unknown to the legitimate user, which provides secret access to data or a change in functionality contained in software or hardware. The introduction of a backdoor in a software without the user's knowledge turns the software into a Trojan horse

Buffer overflow, buffer overrun (BOF)

An anomaly that occurs when software writing data to a buffer exceeds the buffer's capacity, causing adjacent memory locations to be overwritten. Buffer overflows can be exploited by attackers to modify a computer's memory in order to undermine or take control of a program's execution.